• Scavengers (nightsoil men, bonepickers) formed an entire economy that has been replaced by modern waste management systems.
  • Coal (cheap energy), commoners (cheap labor), and caffeine (cheap sustenance) were three drivers of the industrial revolution and accompanying urbanization.
  • Miasma theory posited that bad air was the cause of cholera. Its proponents found support in fact that higher elevations had less disease, but this was because they were less dense and less likely to get water from the Thames.
  • Crucial data became available when a deceased’s water source was added to bills of mortality, in addition to their cause of death and location.
  • Snow needed a matched pair of locations, similar in every respect except where they got their water. Three London districts were served by both S&V (which delayed until the last minute) and Lambeth (which was early to move its intakes beyond the tidal reach of the Thames). This was the critical “ceteris paribus.”